Although most research on cynicism toward change (CTC) has been conceptualized at the individual level, we propose that CTC is better conceptualized as a multilevel phenomenon, acting as both an employee attitude and an organizational climate. We conducted a multilevel investigation of CTC in a field sample of 687 correctional officers in the 14 prisons in a state penal system. Consistent with our hypotheses, both employee CTC and CTC climate uniquely predicted negative employee attitudes and behaviors directed at the organization. Offering insight into how to address CTC, we found that transformational leadership negatively relates to employee CTC and CTC climate. Our results highlight the importance of studying CTC in organizations from a multilevel perspective and suggest that transformational leadership is significant for supporting both functional employee attitudes and a facilitative climate toward organizational change.
DeCelles, K. A., Tesluk, P. E., & Taxman, F. S. (2013). A field investigation of multilevel cynicism toward change. Organization Science, 24(1), 154-171.