Reviews 135 studies on mediation and classifies results into 31 behavior categories (e.g., praise, climate, asks questions). Separate meta-analyses for each mediating variable were conducted. Results were also analyzed separately for studies that examined the relation between expectations and emitted behaviors and between mediating behaviors and outcome measures. Additional analyses focused on the influence of internal validity and type of publication on effect sizes. Meta-analyses supported the importance of 16 behaviors in the mediation of expectancy effects (e.g., creating a less negative climate, having longer interactions). The 2nd author’s (1973) 4 factor (climate, feedback, input, and output) theory of the mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects proved to be a useful framework for conceptualizing broad classes of behaviors involved in the mediation of teacher-expectancy effects. Mediation references are appended.
Harris, M. J., & Rosenthal, R. (1985). Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses. Psychological bulletin, 97(3), 363-386.