The literature on both the Transformational and Charismatic theories of leadership espouse the importance of communication as part of the leadership phenomena. However, the existing measurement scales (The Multidimensional Leadership Questionnaire, the Conger–Kanungo Charisma Scale, the Followership Scale and the Romance of Leadership Scale) that are used to assess both the Transformational and Charismatic Theories fail to adequately address and measure the communication behaviors that are believed to be a part of charisma. Four-hundred twenty-two respondents completed the standard measurement scales and were asked to define “charisma” and to discuss the communication behaviors of a charismatic leader. Using text analysis and correlations, no relationships were found between the existing scales and the definitions and behaviors associated with charisma. This manu suggests the creation of a new leadership measurement that includes charismatic communication behaviors to assist in a proper understanding of these two leadership theories.
Levine, K. J., Muenchen, R. A., & Brooks, A. M. (2010). Measuring transformational and charismatic leadership: Why isn’t charisma measured?. Communication Monographs, 77(4), 576-591.